Install MariaDB 10.1 on Ubuntu16.04

I have Ubuntu16.04 servers running and I want to run database engines like MariaDB on it. Normally I would just type sudo apt install mariadb-server and the database system would be up and running in under two minutes. Ubuntu16.04 will install version 10.0 by default, but I want to install a different version. At the very least 10.1. Why 10.1 you might ask? Well because 10.1 was the first release that had Galera included by default in the package. Galera is a gift from the gods for all system administrators, developers, backup operators and other people who work with databases a lot. With three nodes, the minimum, it will offer you fast and reliable database synchronization and redundancy. Galera is a solid foundation for an easy to build load balancing environment. But first of we will install the MariaDB 10.1 instance on a clean Ubuntu16.04 server. If you want to be absolutely certain that the instructions below will work flawlessly for you, I would advise to use a clean fresh installed server also. Please remember that upgrading (or downgrading) from a different release version is NOT a good idea. When I was learning this the hard way I did a lot of reading on the subject and I can safely say that you should not follow these instructions on a system that runs, or used to run a MariaDB or MySQL instance. Even if you have removed it first apt remove you are still at risk of running into problems. When I was having problems with this I tried many things that included killing the process: kill -9 $(pgrep mysql)  and then purging the removed packages apt purge and also apt autoremove and I even had to delete some left-over files manually. Don’t even try to install it on a system that ran a higher version > 10.1 because that will be guaranteed imminent failure. You’ve been warned! Let’s get started and install some required software and updates.

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
sudo apt-get install nano ssh openssh-server software-properties-common rsync

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